water is one of the most important substance on the earth. it exist in three shapes i.e liquid, gas and solids(glacier). each organisms need water to stay alive. because of its molecule bonding along with hydrogen and oxygen characteristic water has many properties which is important to understand. here in this article we will discuss five emergent properties of water which is important to ensure life of all organisms.

1. Attraction of Water to Polar Molecules

cohesion and adhesion of water

Cohesion of water: cohesion is property of water where water molecules attracts to other water molecules. the hydrogen bonds in water holds other water molecules together. cohesion and adhesion are the “stickness” that water molecules have for each other and other substances. liquid water has high surface tension and insects can move in water because of its cohesion of molecules in water surface. Adhesion of water: adhesion is the ability of water to stick to an unlike substance, attraction between unlike molecules ” water is attracted to other substances”. usually water likes to stick into itself but under certain circumstances it prefers to stick into other molecules.

2. Water Has High Surface tension

Surface tension is property of the surface of a liquid which allows it to resist an external force, due to cohesiveness of its molecules. water has high surface tension because of its hydrogen bonding. water has high surface tension for all liquids except mercury. water needs high specific amount of heat to increase its temperature and in a result it cost huge amount of energy. high specific heat of water provides living organisms a suitable temperature for life on earth.

3. Water is universal Solvent

Water is refer a universal solvent because of polarity of its molecules. it is simply a liquid in which other substance can dissolve in it. if we dissolve salt in water it produces positive sodium ions and negative chloride ions, then positive oxygen atoms in water attracts negative chloride ions, and negative hydrogen atoms attracts positive sodium ions. water is labeled universal solvent because none other solvent can dissolve as many substances as it can.

universal solvent

Water is most important substance on the earth for life. salt, acids, vitamins, glucose and Gases are all major solvents of water.

4. Water has a Neutral pH

pH of water is very important regarding to measure it quality. it has the range of 0 to 14. [H2O] water can dissociate into Hydrogen [H+] and Hydroxyl [OH-] ions. pH is a relative measure of Hydrogen to Hydroxyl ions. as water has a roughly equal number of Hydrogen and Hydroxyl ions, it is not acidic and neither basic and has a Neutral pH value of 7.

5. Water expands when it Freezes

Water expands when it freezes, its bonds can no longer be broken. because there is no heat energy exists to force it molecules. therefore the water molecules form a lattice that is more expansive than water in liquid form. it is less dense than water, it floats over the more dense liquid water. reason the frozen water contains the same number of molecules but is more expansive, it is less dense than liquid water.

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