It is very important to understand the polar and nonpolar nature of molecules. First of all we will define polar and nonpolar molecules.
The molecules which have positive and negative charges on it and asymmetric distribution of electron density within the molecule, is called as polar molecule. Due to presence of poles molecules called polar molecules.
Non polar molecules are those which have symmetrical arrangements of atoms and have mutual sharing of electrons so no poles will be formed therefore molecule is known as nonpolar molecules.
So, Is CHCl3 Polar or Nonpolar?
CHCL3 is a polar molecule. Here are some basic properties which describes the polar nature of CHCl3 molecule.
1.Shape of molecule
Shape of chloroform is tetrahedral as one hydrogen atom and three chlorine make triangular pyramid, surround the carbon atom. Carbon has high Electronegativity than hydrogen so electron density shifts slightly towards carbon atom in the center of molecule. When we see Electronegativity of chlorine atom, it is highly electronegative so electron density shifts away from carbon towards chlorine. Due to shift of electron density, partial charge will induce which made chloroform a polar molecule.
2.Electronegativity of molecule
Electronegativity of Hydrogen is 2.20 and chlorine 3.16. Therefore, CHCl3 is a polar molecule due to large Electronegativity of hydrogen and chlorine atoms. This induce permanent dipole across the molecule as &+ charge on hydrogen atom and &- charge on chlorine atom.
3.Dipole moment of CHCl3:
It is stated in 55’th edition of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics that the dipole moment of chloroform , CHCl3, is 1.01 debye. So it is a polar molecule. If it has zero dipole moment as µ=0 then it will be nonpolar. Permanent dipole moment is induced due to presence of partial charges on hydrogen(&+) and chlorine atoms (&-) charge.
4.Symmetry of molecule:
Molecules which are asymmetrical are usually polar and CHCl3 is polar due to its asymmetric nature.
5.Structure of Chloroform:
Structure of CHCl3 is showing that it is polar in nature. If arrows cancel each other effect then it will be nonpolar and if arrows not towards central atom then it will be polar so in given structure it will be polar molecule.