Water is a matter that can be bringing into being in three forms: a liquid, a solid, and a vapor. Water can be found most frequently in its liquid form and becomes a solid when the temperature drops below freezing 32 °F or 0 °C. Water turns into a vapor when it run away into the air. The more heat that is applied to water the faster it vaporizes. Water is in a constant cycle of altering from a liquid to a vapor as it is made up of millions of molecules that are in constant motion. Water has no shape. In its liquid form it scrounges the shape of the container it occupies. Straightforward experiments can help students become more conscious of the properties of water as well as the significance of water in their lives.

Liquid: a free flowing matter that use the shape of its container.

Solid: a rigid substance that keeps its own shape.

Vapor: a matter in the appearance of a gas having no fixed shape.

Shape of Water in liquid phase:

Water in liquids form seems to be formless that flow without structure. As water flows along a river or in any flowing medium, it constantly changes its shape to fit the space available. This is because when water is in liquid form it flow and do not have a fixed shape. Instead it takes the shape of container or the medium in which this is. If we pour a liquid from a glass into a plate then its shape change into shape of plate but the volume of liquid remain same {as the space its take up}.

Water is considered a liquid under standard conditions (25 degrees Celsius and 1 atm of pressure). Almost all elements in periodic table surrounding oxygen eg – nitrogen, fluorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine –when combine with hydrogen atom to produce gases under standard temperature and pressure but Water forms a liquid state instead of a gaseous pase because oxygen is more electronegative element than the other surrounding elements, except fluorine. Oxygen attracts electrons with greater strength than does hydrogen as a result a partial positive charge on the hydrogen atoms and a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom. The presence of highly electropositive and highly electronegative charges on each of these atoms gives a water molecule with a net dipole moment.

Shape of water in Solid Phase (Ice)

The solid phase of water is characterized as ice having hard amalgamated crystals, such as ice cubes, or of loosely accumulated granular crystals, such as snow. Unlike most other substances, water’s solid phase (ice) is less dense than its liquid form therefore it forms hexagonal packing within its crystalline structure. This crystal lattice occupies more space than when the molecules are in the liquid state. Here is showing crystal structure of ice.

The hexagonal structure of ice: As a naturally occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice is known to be a mineral. It maintain a regular crystalline structure considered as the molecular structure of water, which consists of a single oxygen atom covalently bonded with two hydrogen atoms: H-O-H.

Shape of water in gas Phase (Water Vapor)

The gaseous phase of water is considered as water vapor (or steam) and is characterized by a transparent cloud. When water molecules gain energy and go to excited state and changed into vapors or gaseous form. In gaseous form water is present in almost every where either in form of clouds or water vapors we can’t see it with naked eyes but examine with microscopes.

When water attains a specific critical temperature and pressure (647 K and 22.064 MPa), the liquid and gas phases mix into one homogeneous phase which have properties of both gas as well as liquid.

Following activities shows us the shape of water:

1) Pour colored water and dry spaghetti into several dissimilar clear plastic containers (pitchers, jars, cubes) to reveal the difference between a solid and a liquid. Have students pour the water and spaghetti into different containers until they make a decision that water gets the shape of its container and that water has no shape of its own.

2) Establish the term “liquid.” talk about other substances that are liquids (milk, juice). In small groups let students research to see if all liquids have the same properties. Give every group three diverse shaped containers and three different liquids (milk, juice, pancake syrup, honey, cooking oil, etc.) and one solid thing (marbles, marshmallows, unfix cubes).

Permit each group to decide which substances are liquid and which are solid. Have all groups tell the class why the items they chose were liquid or solid.

3) Have students read out a definition of a liquid and a solid. Record these responses on a blackboard or a large piece of paper. After they have defined a liquid and a solid, make a everlasting record of their definitions.

Structure of water:

Water is a simple molecule having one oxygen atom bonded with two hydrogen atoms. Due to high electronegtivity oxygen attract the hydrogen atoms with more strength. As a result of this oxygen atom attain partial negative charge and hydrogen atom receive partial positive charge as given in below structure.

Water has 4 regions of electron density around the central oxygen atom which have 2 bonds pairs and 2 lone pairs. These are arranged in a tetrahedral structure as a result of this molecular shape is bent with an H-O-H angle of 104.5°, the lone pairs are more repulsive than bond pairs electrons.


What type of the bond is joining two hydrogen atoms ?