water pollution is major concern for globe in 21st century. water is basic need for life. if water is polluted it is very harmful for humans and it can produce dangerous diseases in human body and animals.
However it is going very difficult for middle class people to get to proceed it into standard quality before bring it in daily use.in 21st century it is a tough task to get pure water, the substance must need treatment called Water treatment to avoid its effects.
Water pollution comes from number of sources. it can be measured by analysing it sample. when toxic of substances enters in body of water its become polluted water. it has both chemical and physical properties which turns into its pollution. these pollution may not put immediate effect on our health but it took time to spread and turns into harmful disease. there are many sources which effectively spread water pollution.
1. Industrial Pollution
Industries plays major role in our social life and economy of any state any country without industries couldn’t grow their economy, industries provides man power that is why industries is a backbone for economy. But Industrial Pollution is one of biggest challenge for humans in today’s life.
Waste water of industries which discharges by industries which runs through different process and different chemicals and materials and these chemicals and materials toxins leave their pollution in these water. many industries leaves these water in to lakes, rivers and sea without treatment it. which in a result polluted our environment.
2.Ground Water Pollution
Ground water pollution or ground contamination is that pollution which spreads through the water laid in the ground like ponds, lakes and rivers. materials like pesticides and fertilizers from land surface moves into land water ground.
Pollution occurs in water when pollution released in these waters. these pollution also occurs in ground water due to its naturally presence of ionic and unwanted solutions.
Drinking these contaminated water can seriously damage our health and can create diseases like hepatitis and dysentery. poisons exists in toxins which also dangerous for health and can cost life loss.
3.Air Pollution of water
Air pollution of water means vapors and gases of water mix into the air which makes air acidic. water particles mix with carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in atmosphere these mixing creates weak acid. when rain started water of rain polluted by air which called acid rain.
4.Marine Pollution of Water
Usually in many countries waste water are falls in oceans which polluted sea waters. these deep blue salted water of sea actually not harmful until human activity doesn’t involved, various types of garbage including plastics dumped into sea waters which makes it polluted. ocean is covered 70 percent of the earth.
Till 1972 across the globe tons of contamination, sludge, garbage and tons of heavy metals along with radioactive waste thrown into sea. 80% of ocean marine pollution comes from the land. everyday millions of vehicles drops a little amount of oil on the roads lot of them makes their way to the sea.
In 1975 to protect ocean environment first meeting was held in london called London Convention lead by united states and was first convention to adress ocean pollution.
Convention jointly take decision that throwing of thrash into ocean is prohibited. in 2006 an moderated agreement held “London Protocol” in London. and ban all kind of waste in ocean except short list of items such as leftover materials.
These polluted material sinks into depth of ocean, where they consume by marine organisms and introduced it to global food chain.
5.Oxygen Depleting Pollution of water
If too much biodegradable materials added to water. microorganisms are living in water these microorganisms are includes aerobic and anaerobic, number of microorganisms increases and use up available oxygen, its called oxygen depleting.
if oxygen depleted aerobic organisms die and anaerobic organisms increases and produce more harmful toxin such as sulfides and ammonia.
6.Suspended Pollution of Water
Many pollution matters like chemicals, substances and particles not easily dissolves in water because their molecules are too big and cannot mix with water molecules .
These pollutant materials are called particulate matter. most of these pollutant later settles in in water body which harm or even kill aquatic organisms that lives at the bottom of water. these pollutants are harmful to marine aquatic lives which lives in bottom of rivers, lakes and ocean.
7.Chemical Water Pollution
Chemicals and metals from industries falls from industries and work shop falls into rivers, lakes and ocean which polluted these water and in a result these polluted water poisonous aquatic lives effects their development or even killed them.
8.Nuclear Waste Water Pollution
Nuclear waste water pollution produced by scientific laboratories, medicines industries and industrial process that use radioactive material. nuclear waste can be harmful for marines aquatics.
in nuclear processing operations conducted by nuclear stations which produce radioactive wastes. these stations are responsible for polluting those waters where it mixes in waters.
Refining and Mining of uranium and thorium are also major factors of polluting water of nature.
9.Underground Water Pollution
Storage tanks or pipelines which has upto 10 percent of its volume in underground is known as underground storage tank. when leakage occurs in these storage tanks, substance inside the tanks start mixing with surrounds which is harmful for water underground and even ground water.
10.Waste and Sewage Water Pollution
Households, industries and agriculture are using pure water on daily basis, which they discharge it in shape of waste water into lakes, rivers and ocean. which polluted these water.
Sewage disposal is major problem for developing countries as these countries don’t have enough resources to treat these sewage water and in a result these sewage water pollutes nature’s water.
There are billions of people across the globe living on the earth therefore treat the water is first priority to protect the environment.
Untreated water can harm the environment and can create disease such as hepatitis and bacteria.
People for some time use their toilets to flush thrash which choke these lines and in a result, sewage water path blocks people surround it starts ill due to its viruses.
11.Oil Pollution in Water
Oceans are polluted by oils because of shipping, its travelling, operations and maintenance. leakage in shipping tankers spills oil in large quantity which falls in the ground.
Oil spills is ordinary but it is very harmful for wildlife like fish, sea otters and birds.
Oil is not solvent in waters when it falls in sea water it makes a thick sludge, later these sludges suffocates fish, if it falls on wings of birds then creates difficulties when birds are flying and stops light from photosynthetic aquatic plants.
Estimated figure of oil spills into ocean is 12 percent the remaining oils spills to ocean from shipping.
12.Eutrophication and Water Pollution
Eutrophication could be describe as big problem, when environment enriched with nutrients its become a major problem for marine habitats like lakes and can cause algae bloom.
Blooms of algae also may hide sunlight from photosynthetic marine plants.
For agriculture purpose fertilizers are uses in large amount when these fertilizers mixes into near water it increases nutrient levels. productivity of such an ecosystem naturally increases.
In such case algae can use all of oxygen of water and leaves nothing for aquatic. in a result many aquatic dies which needs oxygen to survival. many algae produces toxins which can cost death to animal who eat it.