Water emerges to the single very considerable environmental feature which allows the existence and maintenance of life. Some organisms that found to survive without sunlight or oxygen but there have been none found yet that exist completely independently of water. Even hardy cacti in the far make of the desert needs some amount of water for survival. The confidential to water’s usefulness to life lies in its hydrogen-bonding aspects, which deliberate four emergent properties important to creating an environment where life can survive and grow.
1. Water Maintains a Relatively Constant Temperature:
Water has elevated specific heat, high heat of vaporization and an evaporative cooling property that jointly causes it to tend to maintain a constant temperature. Water temperatures change more gently than the temperatures of other substances. Mostly of these properties are due to the hydrogen bonding of water. The break down and formation of the bonds would be required to change the temperature of the water (temperature pretends the speed of molecule movement), accept an extra amount of energy (or heat) to complete.
2. Cohesive /Adhesive property of water:
Cohesion = is the joining of like molecules& surface tension is a result of cohesion.
Cohesion = adherent of one substance to another substance.
Adhesion cause water molecules stick to the side. The sun attracts the water molecule, cohesion pulling other water molecules up till the hydrogen bond break down.
Water molecules are polar in nature and one end of the molecule is more electronegative (negative charge) than the other end (positive charge) , So that the opposite ends of different water molecules are engaged to each other like the opposing ends of magnets. The force of attraction between water molecules are known as “hydrogen bonds.” The hydrogen bonding properties of water induce it to be ‘sticky,’ in that water molecules tend to stick with each other (as in a puddle) that are called as cohesion. Due to this property, water has a high surface tension. This means that it takes a little extra force to break the surface of the water puddle. Water is also retaining the adhesive meaning as it tends to stick to other molecules except water. Especially it will stick to water soluble (Hydrophilic) substances like starches or cellulose. It will not adhere to hydrophobic substances like oil.
3. High Specific Heat/Heat of vaporization:
Specific Heat is the amount of heat which must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change 1° temperature of any substance. Waters ability of maintain temperature is due to its high specific heat that’s may be related back to hydrogen bonding. When heat is absorbed the hydrogen bonds break down but heat is released when hydrogen bonds form.
Water does not like to alter its temperature. High specific heat means that water consume and hold heat amend than many substances. It takes more energy (heat) to exchange the temperature of water. High heat of vaporization means that it captures more energy (heat) to turn water into a gas (vapor) than several other substances. Evaporative cooling is a outcome of the water molecules that do elude into a gaseous state (into vapor) carriage heat with them and therefore out of the water puddle. As a outcome the water puddle will tend to not increase in temperature much and remain constant.
4. Water Expands When It Freezes:
The greater numbers of hydrogen bonds that exist within liquid water induce the water molecules to be farther apart than the molecules may be in other liquids (the bonds take up space themselves). In liquid water, the bonds are continuously being built, broken, and reformed, so that the water can run without a specific form. Anyhow, when water freezes, the bonds can no longer be broken because there is no heat energy to do so. Therefore the water molecules design a lattice that is more valuable than water in liquid form. Because the frozen water consists of same number of molecules but it is less dense than liquid water. The less dense form of water is ice (solid water) will therefore float over the more dense liquid water.
A film of ice float on the body of water worked as an insulator. Which result the liquid water below the ice will be protected from the outside air and will be less likely to freeze as well. This is yet another reason due to which water is able to retain a consistent temperature.